Publication Type: Conference Paper
Source: Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics PED (2012)
Design of escape routes is carried out according to a standard procedure using simple mathematical formulas. This procedure is very limited for both an architect and an owner of a building. According to this procedure is not possible to carry out any depth analysis of an evacuation. The result is a simple time of a people evacuation from a building. The use of evacuation models gives a user an ability to carry out a comprehensive analysis of a people evacuation from a building. The result is not only the time of evacuation, but also a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative analysis of a people evacuation. Verification of an evacuation model is an essential requirement for its use in the legislative framework of the Slovak republic. Paper presents a verification of the reliability of the evacuation model buildingExodus according to the evacuation test results as well as against the results from the standard calculation procedure.
The basic method for work is the computational simulation using the evacuation model buildingExodus. As the normative calculation method was used the calculation according to STN 920102 - Evacuation of people. The results of calculations were mutual compared. Evacuation test was conducted in an university environment. In the test was created situation as to evacuate students from classes to the outside. A total of six runs were performed. During the test were recorded evacuation times as well as different physical movement characteristics of test participants. Data obtained were then used to compare simulation results with the results of the evacuation test. Obtained evacuation times from the simulation, normative calculation and evacuation tests was compared in five series, which are labeled S1 to S5. Each series contains a set of results, the extent of which depends on a number of variations in input data calculations. They were compared to runs 1 to 4 with the simulation - series S1. Series S2 is a comparison of runs 5 and 6 with the simulation test. Comparison of the results from normative calculation with the results from evacuation test was also performed separately for runs 1 to 4 – series S3 and runs 5, 6 - series S4. Mutual comparison of the simulation and the normative calculation is a series S5. Physical characteristics of participants were accurately entered into the simulation and calculation according to information obtained by questionnaire. Population and population panels have been established in accordance with the test groups during the evacuation test. The geometry of space was created with the CAD import. Reaction time in each simulation was equal to zero. No other behavioral modifications were made. The achieved results confirm that the evacuation model can be classified as reliable for use in the legislative framework of the Slovak republic. When comparing the results of the evacuation test and the simulation was consensus in the overall evacuation time from 85 to 95%. The largest differences and the smallest compliance of the results were on evacuation routs from each room. In this case it was a short time period and short distance for people to escape. Based on the data may draw the necessary conclusions on the use of evacuation model for a design and assessment of escape routes in the legislative framework of the Slovak republic. For wider use of evacuation models must be created conditions and evaluation criteria.